A speculum is a medical tool for investigating body cavities, with a form dependent on the body cavity for which it is designed. In a fetish/BDSM context it is used in a medical play scenario.

In the case of a vaginal speculum the two blades are hinged and are "closed" when the speculum is inserted to facilitate its entry and "opened" in its final position where they can be arrested by a screw mechanism, so that the operator is freed from keeping the blades apart.

In the case of a rectal speculum, although a vaginal speculum can be used for this purpose too, one designed for this purpose resembles a tube that has a removable bullet-shaped insert. When the anoscope is inserted into the anus, the insert dilates the anus to the diameter of the tube. The insert is then removed, leaving the tube to allow examination of the lower rectum and anus.

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